A Versatile Li0.5FePO4 Reference Electrode for Nonaqueous Electrochemical Conversion Technologies

Eric J. McShane, Peter Benedek, Valerie A. Niemann, Sarah J. Blair, Gaurav A. Kamat, Adam C. Nielander, Thomas F. Jaramillo, Matteo Cargnello
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ACS Energy Letters

The electrification of chemical processes provides a means to effectively utilize rapidly expanding renewable energy resources. Nonaqueous electrochemical systems offer promising opportunities, such as steering selectivity toward N2 reduction over the H2 evolution reaction. However, nonaqueous environments pose challenges for reference electrodes (REs), presenting a need for their design and development. In this study, we show the utility of a Li0.5FePO4 (LFP) RE for nonaqueous electrochemical systems, demonstrating various desirable characteristics: remarkable voltage stability across a variety of electrochemical environments, geometric flexibility, and minimal cation leakage concerns. We show that the LFP RE can serve as an immediate replacement for conventional REs commonly employed in nonaqueous electrochemical systems, such as Pt wire and Ag/AgCl REs.

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