The Pt(111)/Electrolyte Interface under Oxygen Reduction Reaction Conditions: An Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Study

Alexander S. Bondarenko, Ifan E. L. Stephens, Heine A. Hansen, Francisco J. Pérez-Alonso, Vladimir Tripkovic, Tobias P. Johansson, Jan Rossmeisl, Jens K. Nørskov, Ib Chorkendorff
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The Pt(111)/electrolyte interface has been characterized during the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in 0.1 M HClO4 using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The surface was studied within the potential region where adsorption of OH* and O* species occur without significant place exchange between the adsorbate and Pt surface atoms (0.45−1.15 V vs RHE). An equivalent electric circuit is proposed to model the Pt(111)/electrolyte interface under ORR conditions within the selected potential window. This equivalent circuit reflects three processes with different time constants, which occur simultaneously during the ORR at Pt(111). Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to correlate and interpret the results of the measurements. The calculations indicate that the coadsorption of ClO4* and Cl* with OH* is unlikely. Our analysis suggests that the two-dimensional (2D) structures formed in O2-free solution are also formed under ORR conditions.